Kenyan Node

Leader: Prof. KADUKI, Kenneth Amiga

Research Activities

Our group carries out inter- and multi-disciplinary research using atomic spectroscopy, molecular spectroscopy, remote sensing, and imaging microscopy technologies for disease diagnosis, nuclear forensics, food forensics, food micronutrient assessment, environmental monitoring and mineral resource prospecting with financial support from the International Science Programme (ISP) of Uppsala University and The World Academy of Sciences (TWAS).

Nuclear forensics and attribution
For nuclear forensics to be an effective “deterrence” against nuclear security threats, techniques for direct rapid analysis of nuclear and radioactive materials (NRM) are required. Our work exploits laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) spectral/imaging and confocal laser Raman spectromicroscopy towards this goal. The methods are targeted for their versatility, speed, simple operation, portability and in situ capabilities; and they are especially suitable where the sample size is limited and/is concealed (counterfeited). While LIBS reveals the atomic (and sometimes molecular and isotopic) signatures of micro-plasma obtained from the ablated samples, confocal laser Raman microspectroscopy reveals the molecular configuration as well as structure and morphology. Machine learning (ML) is used to extract subtle information from the complex multivariate spectra/images and to perform data dimensionality reduction as well as exploratory modeling towards attribution.

Medical Diagnostics of Cancer, Malaria, Diabetes and HIV by Spectroanalytical and Hyperspectral Imaging Techniques
Trace microanalysis and imaging spectrometry that enable material analysis at nanoscale spatial resolution can allow us to exploit the unique synergy achieved when combined with machine learning to better develop machine learning based diagnostic biospectroscopy and imaging of disease in body tissue and fluid microenvironments. We are currently using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and confocal laser Raman spectromicroscopy. The multimodal approach enables us to elucidate the chemical (molecular, elemental) composition and microstructural signatures of the analyzed and imaged samples. Since the complexity of the samples and data interpretation constitutes a multivariate problem, we use machine learning to reduce dimensionality and to extract the analytical information, and to perform mining (management, analysis and visualization of the data sets) as well as exploratory modeling. Toward disease diagnostics we are currently focused on cancer, malaria, diabetes and HIV.

Computational Imaging and Microscopy
In this research line we are developing computational imaging and microscopy devices for phase imaging of biological microorganisms. This microscopy technique is simpler and of substantially lower cost compared to conventional optical microscopes and will help in rapid malaria detection in small rural health facilities

Remote Sensing for Environmental Monitoring and Mineral Resource Prospecting
In this line of research we have used satellite data for environmental monitoring under several projects: Remote sensing of soil moisture in hydrological simulation of Lake Victoria catchment; Tracking land cover changes in Kenyan forests; Monitoring Kenyan coastal evolution and Mapping radioactive minerals using remote sensing.

Food Micronutrient assessment and food forensics
This is the assessment of raw and processed foods using a variety of spectroscopic techniques. Projects in this line include: Analysis of micronutrients and assessment of heavy metals in indigenous African leafy vegetables using EDXRF; Assessment of agrochemical residues in fruits and vegetables using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy; Assessment of artificial ripeners in fruits using laser Raman spectroscopy.

List of Publications

  1. Wang, S., Zhang, H., Li, W., Birech, Z., Ma, L., Li, D., … & Hu, J. (2020). A multi-channel localized surface plasmon resonance system for absorptiometric determination of abscisic acid by using gold nanoparticles functionalized with a polyadenine-tailed aptamer. Microchimica Acta, 187(1), 20.
  2. Yebouet, M. F. A., Diby, A. K., Kaduki, K. A., & Zoueu, J. T. (2020). Unstained blood smear contrast enhancement using spectral time multiplexing super resolution. Journal of Spectral Imaging, 9.
  3. Simiyu, M. T., Nyongesa, F. W., Aduda, B. O., Birech, Z., & Mwebaze, G. Application of An Organic Plant-Derived Binder in the Fabrication of Diatomaceous Earth Waste-Based Membranes for Water Purification Systems. MRS Advances, 1-10.
  4. Otange, Ben, Zephania Birech, Ronald Rop, and Julius Oyugi. “Estimation of HIV1 viral load in plasma of HIV1 infected people based on the associated Raman spectroscopic peaks.” Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 50, no. 5 (2019): 620-628.; DOI: 10.1002/jrs.5557;
  5. Ma, Liuzheng, Zhenfeng Li, Zephania Birech, Shixin Li, Yatao Yang, Wei Zhang, and Jiandong Hu. “Multi-Channel Optoelectronic Measurement System for Soil Nutrients Analysis.” Electronics 8, no. 4 (2019): 451.; (DOI: 10.3390/electronics8040451;
  6. Chege, Boniface M., Zephania Birech, Peter W. Mwangi, and Frederick O. Bukachi. “Utility of Raman spectroscopy in diabetes detection based on biomarker Raman bands and in antidiabetic efficacy studies of herbal extract Rotheca myricoides Hochst.” Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 50, no. 10 (2019): 1358-1366. DOI: 10.1002/jrs.5619;
  7. Birech, Z., Mwangi, P. W., Sehmi, P. K., & Nyaga, N. M. (2019). Application of Raman spectroscopy in comparative study of antiobesity influence of oxytocin and freeze‐dried extracts of Uvariodendron anisatum Verdeck (Annonaceae) in Sprague Dawley rats. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy. Published online on 25 November 2019. doi: 10.1002/jrs.5790
  8. Nalyanya, Kallen Mulilo, Ronald Rop, Arthur Onyuka, and Zephania Birech. “Recent use of selected phytochemistry to mitigate environmental challenges facing leather tanning industry: a review.” Phytochemistry Reviews 18, no. 5 (2019): 1361-1373.; DOI: 10.1007/s11101-019-09651-x;
  9. Nalyanya, K. M., Rop, R. K., Onyuka, A., Birech, Z., & Sasia, A. (2019). Investigating mechanical properties of leather treated with Aloe barbadensis Miller and Carrageenan using existing theoretical models. Polymer Bulletin, 76(12), 6123-6136. DOI: 10.1007/s00289-019-02706-1;
  10. Guo, Q., Chen, R., Ma, L., Sun, H., Weng, M., Li, S., & Hu, J. (2019). Classification of corn stalk lodging resistance using equivalent forces combined with SVD algorithm. Applied Sciences, 9(4), 640; DOI: 10.3390/app9040640:
  11. Alix Dehayem Kamadjeu, Jutus Okonda, X-ray Fluorescence Analysis of Selected Micronutrients in Ten African Indigenous Leafy Vegetables Cultivated in Nairobi, Kenya: The Pan African Medical Journal. 2019;33:296; doi: 10.11604/pamj.2019.33.296.19501.
  12. Edward Kokonya Sichangi, Hudson Kalambuka Angeyo, Alix Dehayem-Kamadjeu, Trace Metal Biomarker Based Cancer Diagnostics in Body Tissue by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence and Scattering (EDXRFS) Spectrometry. Spectrochimica Acta Part B 158 (2019) 105635; doi: 10.1016/j.sab.2019.105635.
  13. Kaniu, M. I., Darby, I. G. and Angeyo, H. K. Assessment and mapping of the high background radiation anomaly associated with laterite utilization in the south coastal region of Kenya. J. Afr. Earth Sci. 2019, 160, 103606.
  14. Agnero, M. A., Konan, K., Tokou, Z. G. C. S., Kossonou, Y. T. A., Dion, B. S., Kaduki, K. A., & Zoueu, J. T. (2019). Malaria-Infected Red Blood Cell Analysis through Optical and Biochemical Parameters Using the Transport of Intensity Equation and the Microscope’s Optical Properties. Sensors, 19(14), 3045.; doi: 10.3390/s19143045;
  15. K. H. Angeyo (2018). Developing Kenya’s Education Capacity in Nuclear Security Through Nuclear Forensics Research. International Journal of Nuclear Security 4 (1): Article 2
  16. M. Ndunda, A. Dehayem-Kamadjeu & D. Waswa (2018). Impact of Temperature and Relative Humidity on PMD in Directly Buried Optical Fibre Cables in Semi-Arid and Tropical Highlands in Kenya. International Journal of Optics, (4):1-6 DOI: 10.1155/2018/1653767
  17. E.K. Sichangi, H.K. Angeyo, A. Dehayem-Kamadjeu & M. Mangala (2018). Hybridized robust chemometrics approach for direct rapid determination of trace biometals in tissue utilizing energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 153, 198-207. DOI: 10.1016/j.radphyschem.2018.09.019
  18. B. Bhatt, K.H. Angeyo & A. Dehayem-Kamadjeu (2018). LIBS development methodology for forensic nuclear materials analysis. Analytical Methods, 10(7), 791-798. DOI: 10.1039/C7AY02520C
  19. M.I. Kaniu, K.H. Angeyo & I.G. Darby (2018). Occurrence and multivariate exploratory analysis of the natural radioactivity anomaly in the south coastal region of Kenya. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 146, 34-41. DOI: 10.1016/j.radphyschem.2018.01.009
  20. K.M. Nalyanya, K.R. Ronald, A. Onyuka, Z. Birech, & A. Sasia (2018). Effect of crusting operations on the mechanical properties of leather. Revista de Pielarie Incaltaminte, 18(4), 283.
  21. Bhatt, B., Angeyo, K. H., & Dehayem-Kamadjeu, A. (2017). Rapid Nuclear Forensics Analysis via Laser Based Microphotonic Techniques Coupled with Chemometrics. Energy Procedia, 127, 76-86. DOI:10.1016/j.egypro.2017.08.072
  22. Birech, Z., Mwangi, P. W., Bukachi, F., & Mandela, K. M. (2017). Application of Raman spectroscopy in type 2 diabetes screening in blood using leucine and isoleucine amino-acids as biomarkers and in comparative anti-diabetic drugs efficacy studies. PloS one, 12(9), e0185130. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0185130
  23. Otange, B. O., Birech, Z., Okonda, J., & Rop, R. (2017). Conductive silver paste smeared glass substrates for label-free Raman spectroscopic detection of HIV-1 and HIV-1 p24 antigen in blood plasma. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry, 409(12), 3253-3259. DOI:10.1007/s00216-017-0267-0
  24. Kaniu, M. I., Angeyo, H. K., Darby, I. G., & Muia, L. M. (2017). Rapid in-situ radiometric assessment of the Mrima-Kiruku high background radiation anomaly complex of Kenya. Journal of environmental radioactivity.DOI:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2017.10.014
  25. Onyango M., Mito, C. O., Baki, P. and Ouma G., Dec. 2017, Near Real Time Tropospheric Water Vapour Profiling Using Ground-based GPS Receiver. International Journal of Remote Sensing 38(23):6697-6713 DOI 10.1080/01431161.2017.1363434
  26. Makokha, J. W., Angeyo, H. K., & Muthama, J. N., 2017, Aerosol Optical Depth and Precipitation Rate Projections over East Africa Utilizing Self Organizing Map. The International Journal Of Science & Technoledge. 5(3): 166-175
  27. Okonda, J. J., Angeyo, K. H., Mangala, J. M., & Kisia, S. M. (2017). A nested multivariate chemometrics based calibration strategy for direct trace biometal analysis in soft tissue utilizing Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and scattering spectrometry. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 129, 49-56. DOI:10.1016/j.apradiso.2017.08.008
  28. Makokha J. W., Angeyo K. H. and Muthama J. N. (2016), Long Term Change Point Detections in Total Ozone Column over East Africa via Maximal Overlap Discrete Wavelet Transform. American Research Journal of Physics, 2: 1-9.
  29. Bagui O. K., Kaduki K. A., Berrocal E., and Zoueu J. T. (2016). Structured Laser Illumination Planar Imaging Based Classification of Ground Coffee Using Multivariate Chemometric Analysis. Applied Physics Research, 8(3), 32.
  30. Kaniu, M. I., & Angeyo, K. H. (2015). “Challenges in rapid soil quality assessment and opportunities presented by multivariate chemometric energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering spectroscopy”, Geoderma, 241, 32-40. DOI: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2014.10.014
  31. Omucheni D. L., Kaduki K.A., Bulimo D.W. and Angeyo K. H. (2014). “Application of Principal Component Analysis to Multispectral-Multimodal Optical Image Analysis for Malaria Diagnostics” Malaria Journal 2014, 13:485 doi:10.1186/1475-2875-13-485.
  32. Cheruiyot, E.K., Mito, C., Menenti, M., Gorte, B., Koenders, R., Akdim, N., August 2014. Evaluating MERIS-Based Aquatic Vegetation Mapping in Lake Victoria. Remote Sens. 6, 7762–7782.
  33. Birech Z., Schwoerer M., Schmeiler T., Pflaum J., and Schwoerer H. (2014). Ultrafast dynamics of excitons in tetracene single crystals. J. Chem. Phyc., 140, 114501.
  34. Gitonga L., Memeu D.M., Kaduki K.A., Mjomba A.C.K and Muriuki N.S, Determination of Plasmodium Parasite Life Stages and Species in Images of Thin Blood Smears Using Artificial Neural Networks, Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics, 4, (2014), pp. 78-88
  35. Odumo B.O., Carbonell G. C., Angeyo K. H., Patel J. P., Torrijos M. and MartinJ. A. R. (2014). “Impact of Gold Mining Associated with Mercury Contamination in Soil, Biota sediments and Tailings in Kenya”, Environ Sci Pollut Res DOI 10.1007/s11356-014-3190-3.
  36. Mukhono P. M., Angeyo K. H., Dahayem-Massop A. and Kaduki A. K. (2013). “Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroanalysis and Characterization of Environmental Matrices Utilizing Multivariate Chemometrics”, Spectrochimica Acta B (In Press, Available online 7 June 2013:
  37. Fusilli L., Collins M.O., Laneve G, Palombo A., Pignatti S. and Santini F., (2013), “Assessment of the abnormal growth of floating macrophytes in Winam Gulf (Kenya) by using MODIS imagery time series” International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation. Vol 20, pp.33 – 41
  38. Angeyo K. H. and Golloch A. (2013). “Characterization of Sliding Spark Plasma Source for Direct Trace Spectroanalysis”, Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids 168 (3), 176-187.
  39. Makokha J. W. and Angeyo K. H. (2013). “Investigation of the Radiative Characteristics of the Kenyan Atmosphere due to Aerosols Using Sun Spectrophotometry Measurements and the COART Model”, Aerosol & Air Quality Research 13 (1), 201-208.
  40. Memeu D.M., Kaduki K.A. Mjomba A.C.K, Muriuki N.S. and Gitonga L. (2013). “Detection of Plasmodium Parasites from Images of Thin Blood Smears”, Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics, 3 (2013), 183-194. Published Online December 2013.
  41. Makokha J. W., Kimani J. N. and Angeyo K. H. (2012). “Estimation of Radiative Forcing Due to Aerosols over Selected Sites in Kenya”, J. of Meteorology & Related Sciences Vol 6, pp. 3– 13
  42. Mito C.O., Boiyo R.K. and Laneve G., (2012). “A simple algorithm to estimate sensible heat flux from remotely sensed MODIS data”, International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 33, No. 19, pp. 6109-6121
  43. Achola S.O., Patel J.P., Mustapha A.O. and Angeyo H.K. (2012), “Natural Radioactivity and External Dose in High Background Radiation Area of Lambwe East, South-western Kenya”, Radiation Protection and Dosimetry, Vol 152, No. 4, pp. 423 – 428.
  44. Odumo BO, Mustapha AO, Patel JP and Angeyo HK (2011), “Multielemental Analysis of Migori (Southwest, Kenya) Artisanal Gold Mine Ores and Sediments by EDX-ray Fluorescence Technique: Implications of Occupational Exposure and Environmental Impact”, Bulletin of environmental Contamination and Toxology, 86(5), 484 – 489.
  45. Odumo BO, Mustapha AO, Patel JP and Angeyo HK (2011), “Radiological survey and assessment of associated activity concentration of the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the Migori artisanal gold mining belt of southern Nyanza, Kenya”, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 69, 912 – 916.
  46. Kaniu IM, Angeyo HK, Mangala JM, Mwala AK and Bartilol SK (2011), “Feasibility for chemometric energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectroscopy method for rapid soil quality assessment”, X-ray Spectrometry, 40(6), 432 – 440.